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Journal of Political Ecology:
Case Studies in History and Society
VOLUME 6 (1999)
Community and Political Thought Today, edited by Peter Augustine Lawler and Dale McConkey, Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers (1998), 244 pp.
Reviewed by Robert Bradley, Department of Political Science, Illinois State University.
This edited volume evolved from
a conference on communitarianism and civil society held in 1996 at Berry
College. Most of the authors in the volume participated in the conference
and include sociologists, political scientists, political philosophers,
and historians. They share with the communitarian movement a critical
concern about the current state of American society. Some authors agree
with many of the precepts of communitarianism while others do not. They
also differ as to the causes and implications of the current state of
affairs in America, and as to what theoretical orientation provides the
most valid insights into that state of affairs. Finally, significant differences
exist among the authors as to what they would prescribe to address the
perceived problems plaguing our current form of democracy.
In Chapter One, Allen D. Hertzke
and Chris McRorie introduce and define the concept of 'moral ecology'.
They observe that many commentators have included ecological referents
in discussing contemporary social and political problems. The authors
claim this chapter is "the first systematic formulation of empirical
relationships inherent in the concept of moral ecology" (p. 2). Before
detailing that formulation, the authors briefly review the conceptâs
historical origins. Then the authors present three cases - media violence,
the breakdown of the family, and the states' promotion of lotteries -
to illustrate the empirical relationships evident from a moral ecological
perspective. The authors conclude by discussing the advantages of using
the moral ecology concept, the philosophical dilemmas posed by the concept,
and the broad policy implications that flow from the existence of the
concept. If the authors had emphasized moral ecology more as a theoretical
construct and less as a social science model, their venture would have
been more persuasive.
In Chapter Two, Murray Jardine attempts
to clarify the confusion surrounding the term "communitarian".
As Jardine contends, some perceive the term to be a reflection of wanting
to return to past idyllic communal societies while other think the term
connotes a desire for a contemporary version of socialism. He also wants
to provide a more coherent theoretical basis for communitarianism by placing
its concerns in the context of current political theory. He argues that
the primary concern for current political thinking is to find a new basis
for political order. The central premise for modern Western bourgeois
culture, which is its conception of progress, has come to an end. Jardine
provides several reasons for the demise of the notion of progress. In
detailing these reasons, Jardine interestingly points out that modern
culture in progressing toward a society of autonomous individuals has
sown the seeds for the emergence of tyranny. Then he discusses three different
approaches to reconstructing political order ÷ postmodernism, neoclassicism,
and a philosophy of language and science. Finally, he argues that communitarianism
could profit both from employing a classificatory model to distinguish
itself from other reconstructive approaches and from developing its own
unique vocabulary that is appropriate for devising new democratic communities.
Marc Stier in Chapter Three addresses
the question as to whether communitarianism can draw usefully from the
ideologies of both the left and right in this nation. He concludes
that for communitarianism to present a viable alternative to the existing
political world it has to adopt a pluralistic stance and use some ideas
from the left and right, and also some suggestions that communitarians
might find untenable. Before discussing his suggestions that would
reduce the tension between the left and right in their appraisal of communitarianism,
Stier briefly describes what the "left" and "right"
in contemporary American politics mean. Ultimately, he argues that for
communitarianism to be successful it must allow local communities to pursue
actions that adherents of the left or right might view as questionable
or even harmful. For communitarianism to have an impact, the struggles
between the left and right have to be tempered. This prescription, however,
might be much easier to state than to see actualized.
In Chapter Four, Bruce Frohnen presents
a compelling case that Robert Bellah, in writing Habits of the Heart,
does not render accurate full accounts of "Tocqueville's thought,
American traditions of thought and action, and the grounding of communities
of memory" (p. 71). Frohnen first contends that Bellah, even
though often cited as a Tocquevillian analyst of American democracy, differs
substantially from Tocqueville as to a cure for the problem of "individualism".
He also argues that Bellah misstates the American traditions of biblical
religion and republicanism in using them as models in constructing a new
tradition for American public life. Finally, Frohnen states that Bellah
desires to re-connect Americans through communities of memory that in
fact don't need a shared history or memory. The memory of a community
can be subject to constant reinterpretation that would allow it to move
toward Bellah's desired goal of a social democracy. Frohnen concludes
in arguing that Bellah uses religion, history, and traditions as means
to be used to achieve the end of social democracy. It would have been
interesting for Frohnen to address if Bellahâs desired end justified
Brad Lowell Stone in Chapter Five
presents another critical view of Bellah's Habits of the Heart.
Specifically, Stone contends that the introduction to the updated edition
of Bellah's book is full of false or distorted claims. He argues that
it is vital to note these distortions because they draw attention away
from the true sources of the failings in American society, and also deflect
analysis from the problem-solving resources available in classical liberal
thinking. An illuminating aspect of Stone's chapter is his discussion
of the different meanings of "social capital" as used by different
authors. Feminists would be quite interested in his analysis of the chief
cause of the decline in birth rates and increase in divorce rates, and
what he perceives to be the natural end of marriage.
In Chapter Six, Wilfred McClay briefly
makes the case that the communitarian movement to be feasible has to incorporate
a strong element of federalism. If the movement is committed to emphasizing
the need for civic virtue through renewed interest in citizenship, then
it should give serious attention to promoting such virtue at the state
and local levels. Communitarians need to recognize that the American system
of federalism provides multiple opportunities for citizens to become involved
in public life. Unfortunately, McClay doesn't address the pervasive critique
of our system of federalism in that such a wealth of opportunity for public
involvement can overwhelm the typical citizen and compel them to inaction.
Alan Woolfolk in Chapter Seven attempts
to clarify the theoretical links between Philip Rieff's works on therapeutic
culture and Robert Bellah's ideas expressed in Habits of the Heart.
First, Woolfolk discusses how part of Bellah's discussion on individualism
fits nicely in the context of Rieff's concept of therapy. Then he illustrates
how Bellah and Rieff use similar analysis and language in discussing the
problems present in American culture. They also are similar in their depictions
of the characteristics of American culture. Even in an area of significant
departure, the impact of civil religion as a practice on communities of
memory, Woolfolk demonstrates the two authors are reactive to each otherâs
Chapter Eight presents another comparison
of two scholars' ideas. Barry Sharpe argues that to more fully understand
the liberal-communitarian debate one has to appreciate the similarities
and differences in the writings of Alexis de Tocqueville and Hannah Arendt.
He compares them on history, tradition, political liberty, and public
space. The comparisons are done to illustrate that simplistic dichotomies
like liberal and communitarian or individual and community prove to be
less than useful in evaluating current American politics and devising
remedies for any perceived problems.
In Chapter Nine, Joseph Knippenberg
examines the implications of postmodernism for citizenship. Before stating
those implications, Knippenberg first briefly discusses the primary tenets
of postmodernism, and then discusses Richard Rorty's "liberal ironism"
approach as the best available case for the positive impact of postmodernism
on citizenship. Ultimately, Knippenberg is not convinced by Rorty's
ideas and argues that postmodernism is likely to have deleterious effects
Rorty's works are also the focus
of Chapter Ten by Peter Augustine Lawlor. At the statrt of this chapter,
Lawlor makes several points of interest for those concerned about political
philosophy. One is that "pragmatism is the dominant form of
thought in America today" (p. 147). Others include that Richard
Rorty is "America's leading professor of philosophy," that Rorty
is "the most clever, subtle, and witty pragmatist," and that
Allan Bloom may have been "America's most formidable opponent of
pragmatism" (p. 147). Lawlor examines the relationship between
Rorty's and Bloom's thought by first detailing Rorty's pragmatism on several
dimensions, then discussing the differences and agreements between Rorty
and Bloom, and demonstrating some deficiencies in Bloomâs refutation
of Rorty. According to Lawlor, the primary difference between the two
scholars is their reflections on the importance of death, whereas they
appear to agree on the condition of contemporary America.
In Chapter Eleven, Mary P. Nichols
examines the criticisms of American education made by E.D. Hirsch in Cultural
Literacy and Allan Bloom in The Closing of the American Mind.
Both authors essentially claim that the current weakened state of American
democracy is partly due to the failings of American education. Nichols
essentially agrees with their criticisms of American education, which
she details, but argues that their recommendations are faulty since they
include some of the same theoretic elements on which our nationâs
current system of education is based.
In Chapter Twelve, Robb A. McDaniel
presents a systematic analysis of Leo Strauss's anti-egalitarianism. He
wants to explore more fully the ambiguities that are part of Strauss's
thoughts on natural inequality. For those interested in perpetuating liberalism,
a fuller examination of the complexity of Strauss's defense of liberal
democracy would be quite useful. McDaniel discusses some of the critical
components of Straussâs ideas about liberalism, and reflects on
some of the common ground shared by his and communitarian thought.
In Chapter Thirteen, Daniel J. Mahoney
wants to "highlight the contribution that Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
has made to our understanding of the phenomena of ideology and natural
right." (p. 210) Mahoney examines Solzhenitsyn's thoughts primarily
in regard to his reflections on the meaning of totalitarianism and the
worst evil emanating from totalitarianism. He also discusses Solzhenitsyn's
political stance and his thoughts on the rearticulation of a natural moral
order and compares those thoughts to Leo Strauss's.
In the final chapter of the volume,
Brian C. Anderson explores Raymond Aron's thoughts on the prospects of
achieving a state of peace for the world community. Anderson points out
that Aron categorized two approaches toward achieving this form of peace.
Anderson details Aron's thoughts on these two approaches and which one
would be the preferred way of achieving a universal peace. The transition
between this chapter, which focuses on the notion of international community,
and the other chapters that examine community in the American context
is somewhat abrupt but does prove to be a interesting extension of reflecting
on communitarian thought.
In summary, to more fully appreciate the insights made by the chapters' authors, one needs to have a pretty thorough understanding of the tenets of communitarianism and a basic familiarity with the writings of both classical and contemporary philosophers. For readers with this knowledge base, Community and Political Thought Today makes a welcome contribution along a variety of dimensions about communitarian and current political thought and the state of affairs in America.